RF/Wireless Design: Circuit Level

These courses are intended for professionals who are designing or troubleshooting RF or Wireless products at the circuit or component level.

Courses covering this topic provide circuit-level designers with the fundamental concepts needed to work effectively with high frequency electronics. Participants gain analytical, graphical, and computer-aided techniques to analyze and optimize RF circuits in practical situations. The courses address linear active circuit design, focusing on stability, bandwidth, and noise considerations.

Applied RF Engineering I – Circuits and Transmission Lines Online

Course 1


Based on SM Technologies famous RF course material, this program has been reworked and updated to meet the needs of today’s engineers looking for online self-paced study. Video lectures are followed by our exclusive online workbooks featuring interactive problem sets and quizzes along with optional supplemental reading for those who wish to explore topics in more depth. A bonus guest tutorial from a SM Technologies instructor offers a different perspective on one of the topics covered in the course (guest tutorials vary by course offering). This course is the first part of an RF Engineering Certificate program currently under development by SM Technologies.

Even when working with “off the shelf” integrated radio products, engineers still need a basic understanding of circuit operation and design considerations to assure a successful product implementation and avoid unexpected pitfalls. Switching from traditional circuit definitions based on voltages and currents, to power-flow concepts and scattering parameters, this course offers engineers a smooth transition into understanding circuit operation in the RF and wireless domain. We review S-parameter measurements and applications for both single-ended (unbalanced) and balanced circuits. Impedance matching is vitally important in RF systems and we use both graphical (Smith Chart ) and analytical techniques throughout the course. We also examine discrete and monolithic component models in their physical forms, discussing parasitic effects and losses, revealing reasons why circuit elements behave in surprising manners at RF.

Since wires and printed circuit conductors may behave as transmission line elements, we also cover microstrip and stripline realizations. Another important consideration is circuit layout, therefore we look at problems caused by coupling, grounding and parasitic resistance.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • design impedance matching networks analytically
  • use S-parameters to predict basic performance of components
  • use the Smith Chart for matching network design and to visualize circuit performance
  • predict the effect of parasitics on capacitor and inductor performance at higher frequencies
  • convert series circuits to parallel equivalents and vice versa
  • decide when to treat interconnects as transmission lines
  • use transmission lines for matching networks
  • understand some basic principles of PC board behavior at high frequencies

Target Audience

This course is intended for students with an engineering background or equivalent practical experience. The material covered is similar to the RF Technology Certification program (part 1), but with with more in-depth numerical design examples and exercises.

The course follows the proven format of the RF Technology Certification program, with video lectures followed by online workbooks. The exercises in the workbooks are expanded with more custom calculators and design work. A free open-source RF circuit simulator is employed for working on simple design exampels.




Section 1 – Introduction

Course Overview

• Frequency spectrum • Power levels at RF

Basic Analytical Tools

• dB, dBm • Complex number review • wave parameters

Section 2 – Complex Impedance, Resonance, Transmission Lines

Complex Impedance, Resonance

• Series RC, RL networks • Parallel RC, RL networks • Resonance • Q factor • conversion between series and parallel circuits

Transmission Lines

• transmission line types • characteristic impedance • the 5% rule • lumped vs. distributed networks • short and open terminated transmission lines


• mismatch and reflections • reflection coefficient • return loss • mismatch loss • SWR

Section 3 – Smith Chart

Basic Derivation

• derivation of impedance curves – resistance – reactance • admittance chart

Component Manipulations

• Series Capacitor, Inductor, Resistor • Parallel Capacitor, Inductor, Resistor • Transmission lines

Section 4 – S-parameters


• what the S-parameters refer to • comparison with Z, Y, ABCD parameters


• basic network analyzer block diagram

Cascaded Calculations

• Cascaded S-parameters • T-parameters

Differential Circuits

• Mixed mode S-parameters • Description of X-parameters

Section 5 – Impedance Matching

Analytical Techniques

• Using Q to Match Impedances • absorbing reactances • resonating reactances • Smith Chart • visualizing matching networks on the Smith Chart

Section 6 – Component Models

Lumped Elements at RF

• resistor component models • capacitor component models • inductor component models • behavior at high frequencies • package effects • ferrite behavior

Part 7 – Transmission Lines and Ground Parasitics

• Via hole inductance • multi-layer PC-board parasitics • via stub effects • PC board materials, dielectric constants

Transmission Lines

• transmission line realizations • discontinuities • converting a circuit schematic to physical form

Courses dedicated to this topic provide participants with an understanding of advanced RF and microwave design techniques. Participants are given an overview of nonlinear devies such as receivers, large signal power amplifiers, oscillators, and mixers. For each of the major topic areas, participants learn the underlying theory of operation, design techniques, operational and performance parameters. Design tradeoffs, linearization, and efficiency enhancement techniques of nonlinear circuits are presented.

RF Design: Applied Techniques

Course 2


This new course incorporates the most popular topics from Applied RF Techniques 1 and 2 in a 5-day format. The material presented provides participants with the critical tools to design, analyze, test, and integrate linear and nonlinear transmitter and receiver circuits and subsystems.

Impedance matching is vitally important in RF systems and we use both graphical (Smith Chart ) and analytical techniques throughout the course. We also examine discrete and monolithic component models in their physical forms, discussing parasitic effects and losses, revealing reasons why circuit elements behave in surprising manners at RF. Filters, resonant circuits and their applications are reviewed through filter tables and modern synthesis techniques, leading into matching networks and matching filter structures. Since wires and printed circuit conductors may behave as transmission line elements, we also cover microstrip and stripline realizations. 2D and 2.5D electromagnetic field simulators are used in the course to illustrate transmission line behavior and component coupling effects.

In the area of active circuits, we first examine fundamental limitations posed by noise and distortion. The next topic is small-signal linear amplifier design, based on scattering parameter techniques, considering input/output match and gain flatness RF stability is examined both with S-parameters and also with the Nyquist test using nonlinear device models. Since DC biasing affects RF performance, we review active and passive bias circuits and see how they can be combined with impedance matching circuits. Another important consideration is circuit layout, therefore we look at problems caused by coupling, grounding and parasitic resistance. Narrow and broadband designs are compared, using lossless and lossy impedance matching as well as feedback circuits. Low-noise amplifier design is illustrated, discussing trade-offs among gain flatness, noise, RF stability, and impedance match. Harmonic and inter-modulation performance is also examined. Performance trade-offs of balanced amplifiers are viewed. The course concludes by examining large-signal and ultra wideband feedback amplifiers.

Circuit level engineers will master the latest linear and nonlinear design techniques to both analyze and design transceiver circuits. System engineers will examine block level circuit functions; learn the performance limits and how to establish specifications. Test engineers will learn how to test and evaluate circuits. Transceiver circuits to be covered include power amplifiers, oscillators ( PLL, VCO, etc. ) and the critical receiver elements. Receiver architecture and synthesizer design to meet critical requirements will be presented. Techniques to successfully integrate circuit functions at the system level will be discussed. 

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Describe RF circuit parameters and terminology
  • Match impedances and perform transformations
  • Understand Impedance matching, component models, and PCB layout issues
  • Design filters with lumped and distributed components
  • Predict RF circuit stability and stabilize circuits
  • Design various RF amplifiers: small-signal, low-noise, and feedback
  • Understand and quantify nonlinear effects of transmit and receive systems
  • Use CAD models to analyze/design circuits
  • Design low noise and highly linear amplifiers
  • Understand receiver performance parameters and modulation techniques
  • Design signal sources using PLL ( phased lock loop ) techniques
  • Explain and design VCOs and stable oscillators

Target Audience

The course is designed for engineers who are involved with the production, test, and development of RF components, circuits, sub-systems, and systems. Engineering degree and the course, RF Design – Core Concepts, or equivalent background, including Smith chart and concepts such as wavelength, electrical length, and dB notation, are recommended.




Day One

Impedance Matching Techniques

 • Transmission zeros, LC network order • Maximum power transfer from Z1 to Z2 • Single LC-section impedance matching • Bandwidth and parasitic considerations • Wideband match — low circuit-Q • Narrowband match — high circuit-Q • Illustrative examples

Lumped RF Component Models

 • Resistors • Inductors • Inductance and Q Variations • Capacitors • Effective Capacitance and Q Variations • Primary self-resonance variations • Definitions of Magnetic Properties • Magnetic Core Applications • Ferrite Bead Impedance

Transmission Lines and Ground Parasitics

 • Via-Hole and Wrap-Around Ground Inductance • Parasitic Inductance and Capacitance Effects at RF • Multilayer PC-Board Parasitics • PCB/Interconnects • Open Stub Effects in Differential Vias • PC Board Materials • Transmission Line Realizations • Transmission Line Discontinuities • Converting an Electrical Circuit to Physical Form

Filters and Resonant Circuits

 • Introduction • Recipes for lumped-element filters • Parasitic loss and Q factor • Impedance inverters • Band pass filters with resonant structures • Piezoelectric filters • Filter element transformations

Day Two

Active Circuit Fundamentals

 • Linear circuit definition • Amplifier Performance Limitations • Thermal Noise Definition • Harmonic Distortion Definitions • Gain Compression • Intermodulation Distortion • Spurious-Free Dynamic Range • Error Vector Magnitude • Various Power Gain Definitions • Testing for RF Stability • Causes of RF Oscillation • Typical Stability Circles for an RF Transistor • RF Stabilization Techniques • Nyquist Stability Analysis

Small Signal Amplifier Design

 • Transducer Gain Expression • Simultaneous Conjugate Match for Maximum Gain • Two-stage Amplifier Design for Gmax • Gain Definition – Block Diagram • Operating Gain Definitions • Operating Gain Circle Application • Maximizing Output Power • Available Gain Definitions • Available Gain Circles

Low Noise Amplifier Design

 • Sources of RF noise • Noise Factor and Noise Figure definitions • Noise of cascaded stages • Two-port noise parameters • Low-noise design procedure

Broadband Amplifiers

 • Broadband Concepts • Wideband Amplifier Design Overview • Gain Control and Impedance Matching in Feedback Amplifiers • Series and Parallel Feedback Applications • 10-4000 MHz Feedback Amplifier Design • Equivalent Circuit for Microwave FET • Distributed Amplifier and Cascode Connection

Day Three

Nonlinear Circuits & Concepts

 • Where nonlinearity is important • Methods for nonlinear analysis • X Parameters

High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

 • PA transistors • Matching for maximum gain or output power • Load-pull measurement techniques • Predicting output power contours • High efficiency techniques • Class A, B, C, D, F, harmonic termination consideration

Day Four

Receivers and Their Architecture

 • Noise floor, maximum input, and dynamic range • Receiver spurs • Block diagram • Channel selection • Filtering • Downconverters / Mixers • Effects of phase noise • Quadrature demodulation

Modulation Techniques

 • AM, FM, digital • Multiple access • Bit error rate and SNR • CDMA • MIMO • Baseband filtering • Effects of distortion

Frequency synthesis, PLL design

 • Basic PLL and closed-loop response • Loop filters • Frequency dividers • Output spectrum • Contributors to phase noise

Day Five

Feedback and negative resistance oscillator design

 • RF stability and loop gain • Feedback oscillators and open-loop design • Reflection oscillators

AM FM Noise Considerations

 • AM and FM decomposition of noise • Physical origins of noise • Noise conversion in amplifiers and oscillators

VCOs, DROs and crystal oscillators

 • Electronic tuning strategies • Oscillator specification, testing • Commercially available VCO’s


The design of power amplifiers for wireless systems for both mobile and fixed applications requires specialized design techniques.

RF Power Amplifier Design Techniques

Course 3


Power amplifiers are crucially important in determining a communications system cost, efficiency, size, and weight. Designing high power / high efficiency amplifiers that satisfy the system requirements (bandwidth, linearity, spectral mask, etc.) is challenging. It involves difficult trade-offs, proper understanding of the theory, and careful attention to details. Additionally, designing, building, and testing power amplifiers usually pushes test equipment and lab components to their limits and frequently results in damage to the circuit or lab equipment. This course will examine the different aspects of this challenge with emphasis on hand-on exercises and practical tips to build power amplifiers successfully. This course will give special attention to GaN power amplifiers. Differences between GaN pHEMT, Si LDMOS,GaAs MESFETs, and SiGe will be discussed.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Learn the advantages and limitations of various technologies.
  • Gain an understanding of the pros and cons of various classes operations.
  • Learn how to characterize device for power amplifier design.
  • Acquire design know-how of high efficiency amplifiers.
  • Attain practical knowledge on the design of linear amplifiers.
  • Calculate the lifetime of power amplifiers in packaged and unpackaged assemblies.

Target Audience

Microwave engineers who want to design, fabricate, and test power amplifiers, in the 1-50 GHz frequency range, will benefit from this comprehensive design course. Basic knowledge of microwave measurements and transmission line (Smith Chart) theory is assumed.




Day One

Power amplifier Fundamentals

 • Device technologies: GaAs, LDMOS, GaN, Si, SiGe • Small signal model generation, transistor speed (ft, and fmax) calculation. • Power Amplifier Stability: even mode, odd mode. • Optimum power load estimation, calculation, and simulation. • Load-pull characterization of devices. • Device characteristics and non-idealities. • Dependence of transistor parameters on drive level. • Large signal models. • Power Amplifier biasing. • Exercise: GaN pHEMT small signal model generation.

Day Two

Conventional and High Efficiency Amplifier Design

 • Power amplifier classes A, B, AB, C, and D; concepts, designs, and examples. • Waveform engineering for maximum efficiency. • Class E Switching mode power amplifiers: Concept, Design, Limitations, Maximum Frequency, Exercises, and Examples. • Class F (and F-1) power amplifiers: Concept, Design, Limitations, and Examples. • Comparison of various classes: efficiency, output power, and frequency limitations. • Doherty power amplifiers • Effects of knee voltage, harmonic terminations, and nonlinearities. • GaN pHEMT power amplifiers

Day Three

Linearization Techniques, Power Combing, Packaging, and Reliability

 • Distortions in power amplifiers. • Harmonic balance and time domain simulations. • Linear/Non-linear Memory effects; electrical and thermal memory effects • Measures of Distortion: Third order intermodulation, ACPR, NPR, M-IMR • Linearization techniques: Feed Forward, Predistortion, LINC, Cartesian Feedback, Envelope Elimination and Restoration, Cross Cancellation. • Comparison of Linearization Techniques •  Real world design examples, challenges, and solutions. • Push-pull, Balanced amplifiers, and Traveling Wave Combiners. • Power combining techniques. • Exercise: Design of a power combiner. • Package design • Power Combing, Packaging, and Reliability • Thermal management and reliability calculations. • Biasing and transient considerations. • Exercise: calculating required biasing for 20+ year lifetime.

Engineers designing integrated circuits will benefit from these courses on RF CMOS and available processes for custom integration.

mm-Wave RFIC and MMIC Design Techniques

Course 4


The successful design of mm-Wave (Millimeter Wave) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and RFICs is the result of a disciplined design approach. This course covers, in detail, the theory, and practical strategies required to achieve first-pass design success. Specifically, the course covers the implementation of mm-Wave circuits on SiGe, GaAs, InP, and GaN substrates including instruction on processing, masks, simulation, layout, design rule checking, packaging, and testing. Numerous design examples are provided with emphasis on increasing yield, and reliability.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Learn the advantages and limitations of MMIC Designs
  • Take advantage of the inherent benefits of MMICs over hybrid circuits.
  • Account for the parasitics of the active device.
  • Design biasing networks for active circuits.
  • Design broadband amplifier.
  • Design MMIC power amplifiers at mm-Wave.
  • Test and detect odd and even-mode instabilities.
  • Improve the yield of MMIC chips.
  • Calculate the lifetime of MMIC chips in packaged and unpackaged assemblies.

Target Audience

Microwave engineers who want to design, fabricate, and test robust RF/Wireless MMICs, in the 30-100 GHz frequency range, will benefit from this comprehensive design course. Basic knowledge of microwave measurements and transmission line (Smith Chart) theory is assumed.




Day One

Introduction to MMIC Design

 • Advantages and tradeoffs: true cost, performance, reliability, size • Unique mm-Wave applications: Satellite communications, automotive radar, 5G, 60 GHz communications, beamforming •  Choosing among device technologies: GaAs FET/pHEMT, GaAs HBT, InP, SiGe, GaN HEMT • RFIC/MMIC Design cycle – process selection, device characterization, circuit topology decision, design, taping-out, testing

Passive MMIC Elements

 • mm-Wave element modeling – capacitors, inductors, transformers, via holes • Transmission line modeling – microstrip, coplanar. • mm-Wave combiners and dividers – Wilkinson, Lange, Pi-wave • Baluns, coupled lines, couplers. • mm-Wave impedance matching – Ruthroff transformer, Trifilar structure, and Coupled transmission line transformer

Odd / Even-mode Instability Detection

 • Gain definitions: Gmax, MSG, Unilateral gain • Conjugate matching • Stability analysis – odd mode, even mode analysis, bias-induced instabilities. Instability tests

Day Two

Active Devices

 • De-embedding, Characterization, modeling. • GaAs MESFET, pHEMT, HBT, SiGe, InP and GaN HEMT • Device parameters: ft, fmax, gm, RON, parasitics • Equivalent circuit—physical basis • Intrinsic equivalent circuit • Illustrative example: equivalent circuit extraction • Thermal resistance and lifetime estimation • Design example: choosing FET gate-pitch and bias for 10+ years lifetime

mm-Wave Amplifiers

 • Biasing network selection

Single stage design: lumped vs. distributed matching

 • Design example: 30 GHz 4W GaN feedback amplifier • Multi-stage design

Day Three

Sample Case Studies

 • Designing a 20 – 40 GHz 10 W GaN amplifier • Designing a 75 – 100 GHz 2W amplifier • Designing a 80 GHz SiGe amplifier • Designing a 45 GHz CMOS amplifier • Design a 28 GHz CMOS amplifier


 • Layout design rules • Process control and monitoring • Reverse engineering • Yield and sensitivity analysis

Testing and Packaging

 • Rapid testing: on-wafer, dc-screening • Package design • Package parasitics – cavity effects, stabilization • Thermal management – epoxy, eutectic

These programs provide anyone working in the RF industry with the opportunity to efficiently increase their understanding of RF terminology, components, and systems.

RF Technology Certification – Online

Course 5


This online program has been designed for applications, production, manufacturing engineers and technicians as well as other professionals who need to have a solid background in the fundamentals of working with RF and wireless products. This four part program provides a thorough understanding of RF analytical tools, communications signals, RF devices and test instruments. Starting with basic analytical tools such as the decibel scale, S-parameters and the Smith Chart, this program covers test instrumentation, RF components, and modulation. A basic block diagram of a transmitter/receiver chain forms the backbone of the course outline. Each component is described, and the relative performance parameters defined. Key impairments are introduced as they become relevant to the operation of the system. Basic system calculations are covered, as well as modulation formats and multiple access techniques.

The self-paced program is divided into four parts, each consisting of pre-recorded self-paced lectures followed by custom online “workbooks” that contain a summary of formulas learned and practice exercise questions or measurement procedures. A bonus on-demand tutorial webcast in each part offers an additional perspective on a related topic of interest. Each part has a brief test as well. The program is equivalent to approximately 40 hours of training and students are given six months to complete the material. After finishing the program students will receive a signed certificate of completion.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • work natively with dB values (without using a calculator)
  • understand basic wave parameters and propagation
  • appreciate the effects of parasitics on component behavior
  • understand the effects of mismatches at RF
  • create basic matching networks using the Smith Chart
  • describe basic transmission line structures and input impedance
  • interpret S-parameters from measurements and datasheets
  • describe the basic function of spectrum analyzers, vector network analyzers, and power meters
  • know the limitations on accuracy/uncertainty that affect all RF and high frequency measurements
  • describe the operation of the main components of an RF transceiver system
  • interpret key performance parameters such as P1dB, IP3, noise figure, etc.
  • describe the modulation formats used to impress information onto the RF carrier
  • understand the basic principles of multiple access techniques such as TDMA, CDMA, OFDMA

Target Audience

This program is ideally suited for applications, manufacturing and production engineers or technicians who are new to the RF/wireless field. It is also suitable for those who have been working in the field but who have not had a formal introduction to the key concepts that form the basis of understanding and troubleshooting wireless systems. A knowledge of basic circuit theory/operation (resistors, inductors, capacitors) is assumed.




Part 1

Analytical tools

 • wave parameters • dB & dBm • mismatches and reflection • impedance matching and the Smith Chart • transmission lines • device parasitics and their effects • S-parameters

Part 2 – Signals and Modulation


 • Analog – AM, FM • IQ Modulation – PSK – QAM

Multiple Access Techniques


Performance of RF Components with Digital Signals

 • digital modulation fundamentals • adjacent channel power ACP • error vector magnitude EVM • EVM due to power amplifier compression and AM to PM • EVM due to group delay • EVM due to phase noise • IQ modulator troubleshooting with the VSA

Description of Bit Error Rate

Part 3 – Test Equipment

Cables and Connectors

 • cable and connector care • connector types

Vector Network Analyzer

 • directional couplers • basic block diagram • calibration • basic measurement setup

Spectrum Analyzer

 • time domain vs. frequency domain • basic block diagram • typical measurements

Signal Generator

 • basic block diagram

Power Meters

 • power detection

Noise Figure Meter
Vector Signal Analyzer

 • basic introduction

Measurement Uncertainties

 • mismatch uncertainty • systematic errors in VNA measurements • VNA calibration • instrument-generated distortion products

Measurements of Non-connectorized devices

 • de-embedding • alternate calibration types: TRL • fixturing

Part 4 – System Components

Phase Locked Oscillator

 • principles of operation • phase noise – measurement techniques – impacts of phase noise on sytem performance


 • modulation basics • principles of operation • 1 dB compression point for active devices • output spectrum of upconverter

Power Amplifier

 • principles of operation • 1 dB compression point, saturation • AM to PM distortion • harmonics


 • description of antenna types • dBi, dBd gain parameters


 • common filter types – Butterworth, Chebychev, Gaussian • transfer function • inband loss • match • bandwidth • group delay

Noise and Noise Figure

 • definition of thermal noise • definition of noise figure • techniques for measuring noise figure – Y-factor technique – cold-source

Low Noise Amplifiers

 • principles of operation • noise figure • intermodulation products • S-parameters – input vs. output match • 1 dB compression point


 • principles of operation • image noise from LNA

Intermodulation products

 • how intermodulation products are produced • definition of IP3 • definition of IP2

Overall Receiver Performance

 • typical overall receiver performance • cascaded noise figure, IP3 • SFDR Spur Free Dynamic Range

Both military/aerospace and now commercial applications are finding themselves utilizing higher frequencies in the millimeter-wavelength range. These courses cover techniques to optimize performance and contend with unique issues at these frequencies.

5G, mm-Wave Antennas: Phased Arrays, Propagation, Integration and Test

Course 6


This two-day course provides participants with coverage of antenna element, phased array, link budget, propagation, integration and test topics associated with millimeter Wave (mm-Wave) and 5G applications. The course provides an understanding of antenna property definitions, antenna fundamentals and considerations, antenna types and mm-Wave propagation. The course provides information on how antenna properties and propagation characteristics affect communication systems. Topics also covered include how to test and measure mm-Wave antenna performance.

Learning objectives

Upon completing the course you will be able to:

  • Understand the concepts associated with antenna performance, operation and classification.
  • Describe and understand mm-Wave antenna types.
  • Implement antenna arrays using basic principles.
  • Account for antenna performance and the mm-Wave propagation environment when predicting communication system performance.
  • Measure and test mm-Wave antenna performance.

Target Audience

The course is well suited for those who require an understanding of antenna principles and concepts related to mm-Wave applications. Basic mathematical and computing skills are a prerequisite for this course. An electrical engineering background or equivalent practical experience is recommended but not required.




Day One

Basic RF Concepts

 • Basic design and performance requirements of a wireless communication system

Basic Antenna Concepts

 • Definitions of basic antenna properties – impedance, VSWR, bandwidth, directivity, gain, radiation patterns, polarization, etc.

Fundamental Antenna Elements

 • The Monopole • The Dipole • The Loop • The Slot • Microstrip Antennas


 • Basic Concepts • Size versus Frequency • Common Waveguides • Connection Tips

Aperture Antennas

 • Aperture design concepts • The horn antenna • The reflector antenna

Antenna Arrays

 • Fundamental array theory • Types of antenna arrays • Feed network design considerations • Beam steering and shaping concepts • Performance trade-offs

Day Two

mm-Wave Propagation

 • Friis Equation • The communication link • Understanding and calculating path loss • Receiver Sensitivity and antenna noise figure • Link budget calculations • Atmospheric Loss • Rain Attenuation • Sky Noise • Other Topics

Common mm-Wave Antennas

 • Overview of Common mm-Wave Antennas

mm-Wave Antenna Testing

 • Antenna Ranges • Far-field Testing • Near-Field Testing • How to test and measure antenna performance

The contents shown are subject to change.